This work comprehensively describes etiological factors in the development , Progression and metastasis of human cancers, both for hematological malignancies and for solid Tumors. Approaches for the diagnosis as well as for therapies are outlined too. The fourth edition of the “Encyclopedia of Cancer” features a vastly extended number of terms as compared to the previous edition. Previously published entries have enjoyed a vigorous updating and adjustment to current status of knowledge, a large number of new timely entries have been added to consider the amazing progress and modern developments both in basic and clinical aspects of cancer. Up-to date and authoritative Essays present a comprehensive picture of topics ranging from pathology, to clinical oncology, and targeted therapy for personalized cancer medicine for major human cancers, in particular breast cancer, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, renal cancer lung cancer and hematological malignancies , leukemias and lymphomas. Each author is an international authority for the particular topic, and each entry has been adjusted to an easy-to-follow reader-friendly structure that allows to collect very rapidly essential information. At the same time, these essays should be considered a starting point from which the quest for more detailed information can depart. Extensive cross referencing of essays is an instrument by which the acquisition of the complete picture of a particular topic will be facilitated.